Rare Earth Elements, REE Facts, ProEdge Media Corp., InvestorIntel
Dysprosium, Heavy Rare Earth Elements, HREE, REE Facts, ProEdge Media Corp., InvestorIntel
REE Facts | HREE Facts | LREE Facts | Rare Metal Resource
LREE : 57 Lanthanum | 58 Cerium | 59 Praseodymium | 60 Neodymium | 61 Promethium | 62 Samarium | 63 Europium | 64 Gadolinium
HREE : 65 Terbium | 66 Dysprosium | 67 Holmium | 68 Erbium | 69 Thulium | 70 Ytterbium | 71 Lutetium | 39 Yttrium
Dysprosium, Heavy Rare Earth Elements, HREE, REE Facts, ProEdge Media Corp., InvestorIntel
The Kryptonite of Heavy Rare Earth Elements Dysprosium
Tracy Weslosky, Editor, InvestorIntel
Source: REE Handbook

Dysprosium, REE Collection, ProEdge Media Corp. As the second member of the heavy rare earth elements (HREE), dysprosium has two paired electrons giving it the ability to detect radiation, improve permanent magnets, store digital data, precisely aim lasers, or glow in the dark. Discovered by French chemist Paul Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1886, dysprosium additive to neodymium-iron-boron magnets increases the operating temperature range for use in hybrid and electric vehicles.

Dysprosium is named after the Greek word, dusprositos(δυσπροσιτος), meaning difficult to approach or get at, in reference to the painstaking number of fractional crystallizations needed to make the precipitate (Weeks and Leicester, 1968, p. 667). Dysprosium is a bright silver metallic metal that is relatively stable in air. Soft and ductile, the metal may be cut with a knife; has a melting point of 1407 °C and a boiling point of 2600 °C.

Dysprosium applications are multifold. Used in radiation badges to detect and monitor radiation exposure and for coating compact disks (CD) for digital data, music, and video storage; in Terfenol-D, Dysprosium is used to produce sonar sensors, active noise and vibration cancellation, seismic waves, and tool machining. Dysprosium phosphide (DyP) is a semiconductor used in laser diodes and high power, high-frequency applications. As an oxide in cement, dysprosium is used in nuclear reactor control rods to control the fission process. Dysprosium-165 is injected into joints in the body to treat rheumatoid arthritis.

Dysprosium-KryptoniteAn interesting fact is that Strontium Magnesium Aluminate (MgSrAl10O17) doped with europium and dysprosium is used to make "Kryptonite", a long-persistent phosphorescent material that glows bright green in the dark for up to 12 hours.

With regards to the preparation of the metal, dysprosium is typically prepared by calciothermic reduction of the trihalide, typically DyF3. Although its melting point is similar to Y, Gd, Tb, and Lu, its vapor pressure at the melting point is much higher. This makes purification of Dy, and similar elements Sc, Ho, and Er with high vapor pressures, comparatively easy. Common interstitial impurities which form stable compounds with nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen remain in the residue when the metal is sublimed at 1175 °C at a slow rate (Beaudry and Gschneidner, Jr., 1978). Dysprosium metal is formed when the fluoride preferentially separates from dysprosium fluoride at high-temperature and combines with calcium metal forming calcium fluoride and deposits a high-purity dysprosium metal.

Large resources of dysprosium in xenotime and monazite are available worldwide in ancient and recent placer deposits, uranium ores, and weathered clay deposits. It occurs in the Earth's crust at an average concentration of 3 parts per million. Xenotime is enriched in dysprosium oxide and contains 8% to 9% of the rare earth oxide (REO) content. Monazite-(Ce), which is more abundant in the Earth's crust than xenotime, has dysprosium oxide contents of 0.2% to 0.9% of the REO content.

For more information on the heavy rare earth element dysprosium, visit www.REEHandbook.com – the ultimate source for information on rare earth elements.

Dysprosium, Heavy Rare Earth Elements, HREE, REE Facts, ProEdge Media Corp., InvestorIntel
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Dysprosium, Heavy Rare Earth Elements, HREE, REE Facts, ProEdge Media Corp., InvestorIntel